# 24VAC to 5VDC Conversion

Voltage conversion from 24VAC to 5VDC is quite useful, because a lot of home automation devices use 24VAC, including sprinkler solenoids, home surveillance systems etc. Having a conversion module makes it easy to use a single power supply, without a separate 5V adapter for your control circuit. There are plenty of resources you can find online about it. But these resources are rather scattered. So in this blog post I will summarize and discuss the common choices.
AC to DC Rectification
Before we begin, the first step is to have a rectifier that converts voltage from AC to DC. The common choices are half-wave rectifier (which requires just one diode) or full-wave rectifier (which requires four diodes). For simplicity, I will use half-wave rectifier as an example. The typical schematic of a half-wave rectifier is as follows:

It’s simply a diode followed by a capacitor to smooth out the rectified AC waves. As we know, diode only allows current to flow in one direction, so after the AC voltage passes through the diode, only positive voltage remains. The diode must be selected based on the maximum reverse voltage and the maximum current. One thing easy to forget is that when we talk about 24VAC, we mean the RMS (root-mean squared) magnitude of the voltage is 24V. Since AC voltage is a sine wave, the peak voltage is actually 24 * sqrt(2) = 34V, which is quite a bit higher. The maximum reverse voltage applied on the diode is therefore 34 – (-34) = 68V, which is when the AC voltage runs to the negative peak. So a diode with 70V peak reverse voltage is sufficient.
In practice, transformers that are rated 24VAC usually have a higher no-load voltage, which can vary between 26VAC up to 28VAC. This is typical, and the voltage is supposed to drop close to 24VAC under maximum load (i.e. the current rating of the transformer). As a result, when the circuit is powered on, the transformer can output a peak instantaneous voltage of up to 28 * sqrt(2) = 39.6V.
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